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Middle Ages

Historians differ in their definitions of the middle ages. The term “middle ages” is used to refer to the period in the European history between 1000 and 1500AD. Some definitions of middle ages include the period between the 5th century and 1450, while some definitions extend the period to 1500. Some of the events in middles ages, sometimes referred to as medieval or the dark ages, shaped the European history. Technological inventions, natural disasters, the rise and fall of kings and lords, and wars brought major changes in Europe and other countries. The middles ages were characterized by changes in religious movements especially the church and political systems.

Significant Events in the Middles Ages

The fall of the Western Roman Empire marked the start of the middles ages. The end of the Roman Empire changed the political and social environment in European societies. In 742 AD, Charles Hammer succeeded in his war against the Islamic invasion and expansion in Europe. The end of the Islamic invasion was followed by a rise in the position of the church. Charlemagne became the roman emperor in 800 AD and his rule gathered support from the church. The struggles for succession among the sons of Charlemagne’s successor Louis Pious lead to a civil war. The war ended after three years with the treaty of Verdun that divided the Carolingian Empire into three regions.

Other significant events in the medieval age include the Battle of Hastings and the declaration of Magna Carta. The Battle of Hastings introduced manoralism and feudalism in England while the declaration of Magna Carta created the way for a constitutional government. The Great Famine between 1315 and 1317AD lead to hunger, death, diseases, and increased crime rates in northern England. The Kingdom of England was engaged in political conflicts with France from 1337AD to 1453 AD. Other major events in Europe in the middles ages include the Black Death and the Great Schism. The Black Plague weakened the European church because prayers could not save people from death. The church then suffered a major jolt and was divided into the Eastern and Western Church.

Major Inventions in the Middle Ages

The conflicts and wars in the middle ages led inventions in new weaponry. One of the major war-related inventions in this period was gunpowder, which led to the invention of cannons. Other weaponry inventions included the longbow, flail, lance, and crossbow. The hourglass, minute glass and mechanical clock were invented to record time. Some of nautical inventions in the medieval ages include the compass, rudders, astrolabes and traverse boards. These improved the navigations of boats. Farming equipments such as mills, wheelbarrows and plough were invented in the middle ages. Other significant inventions in this period include the spinning wheel, printing press, eyeglasses, and artesian wells.


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